Public
Authored by Robyn Cross

The Evolution of Trauma

The effects of crises can be felt in one or several areas in a country, the whole country, spread over the borders, and assume a particular international angle. Currently, various crises are occurring within a sub-regional group of countries. For instance, the increase of refugees, illegal trade, the spread of communicable diseases, and cross-border military operations is regular occurrences, which can increasingly destabilize communities and countries struck by crises. In this case, two types of disasters can result, namely community and international (global) crises. Over the years, the approaches to crisis intervention have evolved. However, the dynamics of response methods utilized today is rooted in traditional approaches. Therefore, the paper will focus on discussing the history of both community and international crises by elaborating on the various mechanisms utilized in the past for crisis intervention as mentioned in custom papers https://great-writings.com/custom-term-paper.html

The effects of crises can be felt in one or several areas in a country, the whole country, spread over the borders, and assume a particular international angle. Currently, various crises are occurring within a sub-regional group of countries. For instance, the increase of refugees, illegal trade, the spread of communicable diseases, and cross-border military operations is regular occurrences, which can increasingly destabilize communities and countries struck by crises. In this case, two types of disasters can result, namely community and international (global) crises. Over the years, the approaches to crisis intervention have evolved. However, the dynamics of response methods utilized today is rooted in traditional approaches. Therefore, the paper will focus on discussing the history of both community and international crises by elaborating on the various mechanisms utilized in the past for crisis intervention.

The History of Community and International Crises Community Crisis According to Hendricks, McKean, and Hendricks, a community crisis entails a situation where the entire community may suffer trauma because of a natural disaster or a criminal event. The community may end up suffering from an effect close to paralysis. Due to the crisis, everyone may be shocked, and this may lead to people reacting differently. In particular, individuals may experience a broad range of emotions.

International crisis An international crisis is an extensive term that has no single standard definition. It encompasses a series of interactions between governments of two or more sovereign nations in severe conflict but entailing the perception of a dangerously high likelihood of war. In most cases, an international crisis tends to bring on a war; therefore, it is often better known not as a crisis but a cause of a war.

Historical Overview of Community and International Crises Intervention The same way as suffering has been in human history, crises have existed as well. Consequently, there always was a need for crisis intervention. Usually, family was the first entity to provide crisis intervention; other relatives also could offer assistance, support, and understanding in order to help ailing one. Essentially, crisis brings about various consequences on the individuals affected in the community, such as suicide and mental problems, which are referred to as psychological trauma.

In particular, crisis intervention has originated from averting psychological trauma and suicide in the community. In the past, suicide and trauma prevention programs started as a part of the religious ministries of their pioneers. Despite the existence of other similar services, there were not many of them due to public failing to understand crisis and the community stigma associated with suicide. Such programs relied heavily on trained students, interns, and volunteers. Nevertheless, even currently, volunteers continue to be significant contributors to the efforts of crisis intervention.

After World War II, in the U.S., the communities became more conversant with the importance of providing professional crisis intervention services to walk-in and emergence psychiatric victims. In fact, the government provided finances for training mental health experts and offering mental health services to many returning military. Consequently, support for societal mental health programs steadily multiplied. Moreover, in the late 1960s, hotlines for communicating in times of crisis appeared, and they utilized both professionals and paraprofessional volunteers to offer aid to crisis casualties on a 24-hour basis. These telephone consultants assisted potential abuse and rape victims, drug abusers, and suicide victims. In comparison with the earlier methods, the 21st century, utilizes new mechanisms of crisis intervention that take place through various online social networks, instant messaging, and chat rooms.

The Historical Advancement of the Construct Psychological Trauma In the 1970s, a different perspective to the way psychological trauma was interpreted and managed has emerged. Previously, people believed that individuals without a family history of mental sickness or other evidence of susceptibility, if exposed to a traumatic situation, could develop chronic psychological stress. However, the victim would eventually recover naturally without long-term effects similar to a self-healing wound. Moreover, prior to the 1970s, any person who would break down and suffer long-term effects was viewed constitutionally as vulnerable or affected by a degeneracy of the family. Therefore, in either case, the accountability rested with the individual.

Impact of War on Crisis Etiology and Response During World War I, the recruitment of a mass civilian military, which was then exposed to the emotional pressures of severe warfare, led to the spread of post-trauma disorder referred to as shell shock. Primarily, this condition was understood as a cerebral hemorrhage brought by the harmful effects of an exploded shell. When it became evident that the army men who had symptoms of the shell shock disorder had not been close to the explosion, other explanations were put into consideration. Afterwards, during World War II, to avert prevalence of the shell shock seen in the previous war, the civil and military authorities changed the term and announced that no pensions would be extended to individuals with psychiatric injuries. Thus, the soldiers distressed by the war were diagnosed to be ailing from ‘exhaustion’ and were held within the forces. The term was chosen to mean that the disorder was not severe medically and the victims would recover naturally .

A community crisis refer to an event when the community members may experience trauma due to the occurrence of a natural disaster, war, or other cases such as rape, sexual harassment, and drug use. An international crisis is a situation that may occur because of two or more sovereign nations going to war. As a result, of this kind of crisis, an increase in the flow of refugees and the spread of communicable diseases happen. Traditionally, people used to view crisis differently from the way it is perceived currently. Therefore, conventional crisis intervention mechanisms differ from the ones in the contemporary world.

The History of Community and International Crises Community Crisis According to Hendricks, McKean, and Hendricks, a community crisis entails a situation where the entire community may suffer trauma because of a natural disaster or a criminal event. The community may end up suffering from an effect close to paralysis. Due to the crisis, everyone may be shocked, and this may lead to people reacting differently. In particular, individuals may experience a broad range of emotions.

International crisis An international crisis is an extensive term that has no single standard definition. It encompasses a series of interactions between governments of two or more sovereign nations in severe conflict but entailing the perception of a dangerously high likelihood of war. In most cases, an international crisis tends to bring on a war; therefore, it is often better known not as a crisis but a cause of a war.

Historical Overview of Community and International Crises Intervention The same way as suffering has been in human history, crises have existed as well. Consequently, there always was a need for crisis intervention. Usually, family was the first entity to provide crisis intervention; other relatives also could offer assistance, support, and understanding in order to help ailing one. Essentially, crisis brings about various consequences on the individuals affected in the community, such as suicide and mental problems, which are referred to as psychological trauma.

In particular, crisis intervention has originated from averting psychological trauma and suicide in the community. In the past, suicide and trauma prevention programs started as a part of the religious ministries of their pioneers. Despite the existence of other similar services, there were not many of them due to public failing to understand crisis and the community stigma associated with suicide. Such programs relied heavily on trained students, interns, and volunteers. Nevertheless, even currently, volunteers continue to be significant contributors to the efforts of crisis intervention.

After World War II, in the U.S., the communities became more conversant with the importance of providing professional crisis intervention services to walk-in and emergence psychiatric victims. In fact, the government provided finances for training mental health experts and offering mental health services to many returning military. Consequently, support for societal mental health programs steadily multiplied. Moreover, in the late 1960s, hotlines for communicating in times of crisis appeared, and they utilized both professionals and paraprofessional volunteers to offer aid to crisis casualties on a 24-hour basis. These telephone consultants assisted potential abuse and rape victims, drug abusers, and suicide victims. In comparison with the earlier methods, the 21st century, utilizes new mechanisms of crisis intervention that take place through various online social networks, instant messaging, and chat rooms.

The Historical Advancement of the Construct Psychological Trauma In the 1970s, a different perspective to the way psychological trauma was interpreted and managed has emerged. Previously, people believed that individuals without a family history of mental sickness or other evidence of susceptibility, if exposed to a traumatic situation, could develop chronic psychological stress. However, the victim would eventually recover naturally without long-term effects similar to a self-healing wound. Moreover, prior to the 1970s, any person who would break down and suffer long-term effects was viewed constitutionally as vulnerable or affected by a degeneracy of the family. Therefore, in either case, the accountability rested with the individual.

Impact of War on Crisis Etiology and Response During World War I, the recruitment of a mass civilian military, which was then exposed to the emotional pressures of severe warfare, led to the spread of post-trauma disorder referred to as shell shock. Primarily, this condition was understood as a cerebral hemorrhage brought by the harmful effects of an exploded shell. When it became evident that the army men who had symptoms of the shell shock disorder had not been close to the explosion, other explanations were put into consideration. Afterwards, during World War II, to avert prevalence of the shell shock seen in the previous war, the civil and military authorities changed the term and announced that no pensions would be extended to individuals with psychiatric injuries. Thus, the soldiers distressed by the war were diagnosed to be ailing from ‘exhaustion’ and were held within the forces. The term was chosen to mean that the disorder was not severe medically and the victims would recover naturally .

A community crisis refer to an event when the community members may experience trauma due to the occurrence of a natural disaster, war, or other cases such as rape, sexual harassment, and drug use. An international crisis is a situation that may occur because of two or more sovereign nations going to war. As a result, of this kind of crisis, an increase in the flow of refugees and the spread of communicable diseases happen. Traditionally, people used to view crisis differently from the way it is perceived currently. Therefore, conventional crisis intervention mechanisms differ from the ones in the contemporary world.

The effects of crises can be felt in one or several areas in a country, the whole country, spread over the borders, and assume a particular international angle. 160 Bytes
Markdown is supported
0% or
You are about to add 0 people to the discussion. Proceed with caution.
Finish editing this message first!
Please register or to comment